Frequently Asked Questions on Bankruptcy and Divorce
Financial problems are often cited as the highest stressors in marriage. A recent study found that it is considered the causative factor in a relatively low number of divorces. When divorce enters the picture, a couple’s money problems may be transformed into bankruptcy issues.
Which should happen first, divorce or bankruptcy?
The answer to that question is different for every situation. Generally, if three conditions exist, taking joint bankruptcy first may very well be the quickest, most cost effective option for both parties and for both the bankruptcy and divorce cases. These conditions are:
- Both parties know that they will eventually make use of bankruptcy
- There are very few assets that would be exempt under bankruptcy laws, and thus not that much property to be divided in the divorce
- The parties are not so hostile that they cannot cooperate in the bankruptcy proceeding
What if one spouse will not agree to a joint bankruptcy?
One spouse may file bankruptcy on his or her own. That spouse would be able to discharge the debt. Because both spouses are responsible for the debt incurred during marriage, the creditors would then simply pursue collection for the entire debt against the non-bankrupt spouse. A divorce court may not order the spouse who has discharged the debt to pay it, and a divorce court cannot keep creditors from pursuing the non-bankrupt spouse, since the divorce court has no say over the contract between the creditor and the debtor. The divorce court only has the ability to assign debts between the two spouses. In order to prevent this situation, the non-filing spouse may wish to join in the bankruptcy case.
What happens if one spouse files bankruptcy in the middle of divorce?
If a bankruptcy is filed while a divorce action is pending, the financial matters of the divorce action would be stayed under the “automatic stay” provision in the bankruptcy code. This means that the divorce may not go forward until the bankruptcy case is over without permission from the bankruptcy court. Non-financial matters, such as child custody, needing to be resolved would not be stayed.
What if one ex-spouse files for bankruptcy after the divorce is final?
It often happens that one ex-spouse will file for bankruptcy after the divorce. However, provisions of the bankruptcy code keep the spouse from discharging in bankruptcy any obligations that are “in the nature of support.” Thus, the spouse would not be able to discharge such debts as back child support or spousal support.
Can one ex-spouse discharge an obligation to pay the other an amount ordered as part of the property division in the divorce?
Property division obligations are more open to discharge than obligations that are for support; however, if the ex-spouse objecting to discharge files that objection in the bankruptcy court and is able to show that the obligation is in the nature of support, then the debt could not be discharged.
Are attorney fees dischargeable in bankruptcy?
If one spouse was ordered to pay an amount towards the other spouse’s attorney fees in a divorce or custody matter, it is likely that obligation will be considered in the nature of support and will not be dischargeable.
Divorce or bankruptcy, taken alone, create complex issues. Individuals who find themselves potentially involved in both a bankruptcy and divorce should consult an attorney who understands the intersecting issues and dynamics.
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